— 09 — Points of View – Inference 2

— 09 — Points of View – Judging Scientific Theories

TFY C7 Viewpoints: What’s the Filter?
PCT C10 Judging Scientific Theories

The chapter is about how to recognize viewpoints, understand how they filter reality for us, and how to develop the habit of assessing the source of any information we receive. Exercises and discussion in this chapter will show you the importance of assessing source, how stories revolve around viewpoints, how conscious and unconscious viewpoints differ, how different viewpoints contain different ideologies and rhetoric, how political viewpoints might be characterized, how news framing conveys and shapes viewpoints, and how propaganda expresses hidden vested interests that might not be in your own best interest. Writing applications will allow you to sample the rhetoric, ideas and values of multiple viewpoints, both familiar and unfamiliar. Concluding readings represent the viewpoints of a public figure, Diane Ravitch, who made a radical change in her viewpoint about educational reform, as well as the viewpoint of a story writer, Alice Owens-Johnson, who shapes her comedic story through a single viewpoint perspective.

An unconscious viewpoint An unconscious viewpoint is a perspective unidentified by the viewer.
Egocentrism Egocentrism is the assumption that one’s perspective is the only perspective.
Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism is the assumption that one’s own social or cultural group is superior to all others.
News framing News framing describes the way relative importance can be implied about a news item by layout design, page placement, photos, and the wording of headlines.
Propaganda 1) To publicize or promote something; 2) To promulgate ideas in a dishonest or manipulative way for the benefit of the propagator and regardless of its possible harm to others.
Source The point of origin. In writing: its author, the publication, its reputation, known or unknown viewpoint and sponsors.
Vested Interest A biased viewpoint with a hidden financial or personal stake in its outcome.
Viewpoint A viewpoint is a personal or collective perspective consisting of memories, beliefs, and associations from which events are observed and evaluated.