ACADEMIC VOCABULARY

ACADEMIC VOCABULARY
                                                                                               
The only place where success comes before
work is in the dictionary.
                                                                                    Author Unknown
        Strategies for Learning New Vocabulary
·        
Context Clues
·        
Context Clues in Textbooks
·        
Definitions
·        
Examples
·        
Punctuation
·        
Experiences
·        
Word Analysis
·        
Prefixes
·        
Suffixes
·        
Root words
III.            
Specialized
Vocabulary
IV.            
Strategies for
Remembering New Vocabulary
·        
Circle Words
·        
Write in the Margin
·        
Complete Journal Notes
·        
CRS Review System

V.               
Test Taking and Vocabulary

VI.            
Summary
VII.         
Practice Reading
Passages
VIII.      
Post-Test
Vocabulary
skills
are among the most important comprehension strategies you can
learn.  By increasing your vocabulary,
you increase your understanding of textbook information. A rich vocabulary:
·        
allows you access to many types of reading
material.
·        
enhances your academic abilities.
·        
increases your chances of getting the job
of your choice.
Although no one knows the
meaning of every word, or interrupts his or her reading to look up every
unfamiliar word in a dictionary, using the simple strategies presented in this
chapter will help you figure out and remember the meaning of new words. These
strategies include:
·        
using context clues
·        
using word analysis
·        
writing in your textbook
·        
creating word maps
·        
understanding denotation and connotation
·        
using the Card Review System (CRS)
·        
using new vocabulary daily when you talk
and write

 

 CHAPTER
OPENER: COLLEGE LEVEL WORDS
Goal
The purpose of working with this list is to help students
gain an awareness of their current lexical (vocabulary) ability.

dIRECTIONS

The list on the next page includes many words that students will be exposed to while attending college and will
benefit from knowing. Have your students read through the list and identify all
of those they know and use with a 2; all of those they think they know, but
don’t really use, with a 1; and any of the words they don’t know with a 0. Then
have them respond to their results in their learning journals.

Scoring the results

190 -200 = Outstanding
175 – 189 = Above average    
135 – 174 = Average              
134 and below = Below average
COLLEGE
LEVEL VOCABULARY WORDS
Read
through this list and identify all of those words you know and use with a 2; all of those you think you know, but don’t really use, with a 1; and any of the
words you don’t know with a 0.
aberration        acquiescence               adroit               affable             ascetic
banal                bigoted                         bilateral           blatant             brusque           
bellicose          bursar                          cathartic          clandestine      coalesce
cogent             convivial                      condign           copious            credulity         
debacle            deductive                    didactic           dogmatic         dolorous
eclectic            egregious                     emanate           ennui               esoteric
expiate             façade                         fallible             forte                furtive
genre               gestation                      gregarious        guile                heinous
heretic             hiatus                           hybrid              iconoclast        illusive
impervious       incipient                      indolent           insular              ineffable
jargon              juxtaposition               laconic             lexicon             lyric
maelstrom        malign                         maxim             minutiae          mitigate
naïve                nefarious                     noxious            obdurate          obsequious
ominous           option                          ostracize          parochial          pedantic
pedagogy        presage                        prolific             punctilious       quandary
quorum            rancor                          rapacious         recalcitrant      rescind
rudiment          sanguine                      satyr                schism             surreptitious
taciturn            temporal                      termagant        torpid              turbid
ubiquitous       urbane                         usurp               vapid               vacillate
            versatile           volition                        whimsical        zealot               zealous
COLLEGE
LEVEL VOCABULARY WORDS (continued)
How many words did you identify for each category?
(2) know and use _____  (1)
think you know but don’t use ______
(0) don’t know _____
________________________________________________________________________
 
The words in this list are representative of
the kind of vocabulary you will be exposed to while attending college. If you
know and use fewer than half of them, you need to work on developing both your
general and your course specific vocabulary. On the other hand, even if you
knew most of them, it’s still important to continue developing your vocabulary.
Your vocabulary ability can determine how much you earn in the future.
                                                               
supplemental exercises
There
are three supplemental exercises for this chapter. Information about each is
provided on this page and the related material follows on separate pages that
you can print out for use with your students.
Exercise 2-1: Creating Words (student material on page 31)
Have students get together in groups of three and ask them to
create words using the lists of syllables on pages 31-32.  For each list they should take syllables from
each column and combine them to form words. No syllables can be used more than
once. The first one in each list is modeled for them. (This activity is adapted
from ideas presented in Higher Order
Learning
, J. Kollaritch)
Answers for Exercise 2-1a.
 
                                                 
   A.                                         B.                                            C
Model
1.     
mo                                     bo                                            er         empower
2.     
tur                                      pow                                         sy         ecstasy
3.     
pen                                                o                                   dy        embody
4.     
re                                       man                                         nym     homonym
5.     
hom                                   bu                                            nize      recognize
6.     
rel                                      e                                              rant      ignorant
7.     
em                                     cog                                          logue  monologue
8.     
ig                                       sta                                            lent      turbulent
9.     
ec                                       no                                            ship      penmanship
10.em                                      no                                            vant     relevant
Answers for Exercise 2-1b. (Medium
Difficulty)
A.                                      B.                                C.                                            D.
Model
1. im                                        nu                                o                                              ble
2. hy                                        pos                               si                                              mic
3. mal                                      po                                tri                                             ment
4. chro                                     ta                                 ne                                            tion
5. de                                        nol                               op                                            ous
6. spon                                     vel                               der                                           gy
________________________________________________________________________
1.
impossible   2. hypodermic  3. malnutrition  4. chronology 
5. development 
6.
spontaneous
 
Answers for Exercise 2-1c. (Challenging)
   A.                             B.                    C.                    D.                    E.
1. re                             chro                 ni                     o                      late
2. syn                           per                   o                      ti                      gist
3. vo                            li                      ven                  a                      y
4. mis                           cab                   tol                    gra                   tion
5. der                           un                    der                   ci                     ing
6.hy                             mu                   u                      lar                    ty
7.bib                            ma                   ner                   stand               phy
________________________________________________________________________
1. remuneration 2. synchronicity 3. vocabulary 4. misunderstanding
5. dermatologist
6. hyperventilate 7. bibliography

Exercise 2-2: Heavenly Speech (student material on
pages 33-34)

Many common and some uncommon words and phrases in the English language
are derived from the names of ancient Greek and Roman mythological characters.
For example, the source of the word “terrestrial” is Terra, the Roman
goddess of the earth. In this exercise students are asked to use the clues
provided to guess the English word or phrase referred to in each sentence and
the mythological source from which it came. 
Answers for Exercise 2-2
1. Word: morphine                Source: Morpheus
2. Word: jovial                        Source: Jove
3. Word: plutonium               Source: Pluto
4. Word: marshal                   Source: Mars
5. Word: mercurial                Source: Mercury
6. Word: chronology              Source: Crones
7. Word: Herculean               Source: Hurcules
8. Word: Olympian                Source; Olympus
9. Word: cereal                       Source: Ceres
10. Word: circus                     Source: Circe
11. Word: vulcanize               Source: Vulcan
12. Word: psychology            Source: Psyche
13. Word and Source: terminal
14. Word: lethal                      Source: Lethe
15. Word and Source: Atlas
16. Word and Source: Calypso
Exercise 2-3:
Etymology (student material on page 35)
This exercise gets most students interested in the origins of
words. Have students look up the origins of the words listed on page 00. They
can work in teams or individually – your choice. Many students don’t realize
the wealth of information that can be found inside a dictionary. Ask your
students to provide all of the information they can for each word, such as its
meaning and the country in which it originated.
Answers for Exercise 2-3a.
                                     
1. Africa                      Latin
– apricot
2. Kangaroo                Aborigines
– I don’t know
3. Novi                        (acronym
-Train stop number 6)
4. Man                         Latin
– hand (woman – hand with womb)
5. Jazz                         West
African – some say it means sexual activity
6. Ketchup                  Chinese
– brine of fish
7. Gorilla                     Greek
– wild hairy people whose females were called gorillas
8. Strategy                   Greek
– leading an army
9. Whisky                    Gaelic – water of life
10. Zero                       Arabic
– empty
Answers for Exercise 2-3b.
(Have students share their
answers)
1.Words developed as a result of technology:
Examples: Ram, bytes, disk, CD’s, digital, T.V.,
record, Internet
2.
Words that developed as a result of cultural,
political, technological or other events:
Examples: bomb,
atomic, G.I.’s, 911, mob, mobile, electronic, digital, rock and
roll, and
3. Words that developed as a result of the Hip Hop culture.
Examples: fly (cool),
slammin (cool,) dope (cool,) whack (stupid,,) phat (cool) dog (friend), cat
(not a friend)
CHAPTER TWO: EXERCISE 2-1a.
Get together with two other students and practice using word parts
to create words from the following lists of syllables. Take a syllable from
column A, and combine it with one from each of columns B and C to form a word.
No syllables can be used more than once. The first one is modeled for you. (This activity
is adapted from ideas presented in Higher
Order Learning
, J. Kollaritch)
 
 
                                                                                                             
   A.                                         B.                                            C
Model
9.     
mo                                     bo                                            er
10.  tur                                      pow                                         sy
11.  pen                                                o                                              dy
12.  re                                       man                                         nym
13.  hom                                   bu                                            nize
14.  rel                                      e                                              rant
15.  em                                     cog                                          logue   monologue
16.  ig                                       sta                                            lent
17.  ec                                       no                                            ship
18.  em                                     no                                            vant
 
CHAPTER TWO: EXERCISE 2-1b.
 
Medium Difficulty
Take a syllable from column A, and combine it with one from each
of columns B, C, and D to form a word. No syllables can be used more than once.
The first one is modeled for you:
A.                                            B.                                C.                                            D.  
Model
1. im                                        nu                                o                                              ble
2. hy                                        pos                               si                                              mic
3. mal                                      po                                tri                                             ment
4. chro                                     ta                                 ne                                            tion
5. de                                        nol                               op                                            ous
6. spon                                     vel                               der                                           gy
CHAPTER TWO: EXERCISE 2-1c.
 
Challenging!
Take a syllable from column A, and combine it with one from each
of columns B, C, D and E to form a word. No syllables can be used more than
once.
   A.                             B.                    C.                    D.                    E.
1. re                             chro                 ni                     o                      late
2. syn                           per                   o                      ti                      gist
3. vo                            li                      ven                  a                      y
4. mis                           cab                   tol                    gra                   tion
5. der                           un                    der                   ci                     ing
6.hy                             mu                   u                      lar                    ty
7.bib                            me                   ner                   stand               phy
CHAPTER TWO: EXERCISE 2-2.
Heavenly
Speech
Many common and some uncommon words and phrases in the English
language are derived from the names of ancient Greek and Roman mythological
characters. For example, the source of the word “terrestrial” is
Terra, the Roman goddess of the earth. From the clues provided, try to guess
the English word or phrase referred to in each sentence and the mythological
source from which it came. The dashes indicate the number of letters in each
word or phrase.
1.      An addictive
drug that is used to relieve pain, this word comes from the name of the Roman
god of sleep and dreams.
Word: __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __    Source: __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
2.      From another
form of Jupiter, the chief Roman god, comes this familiar word meaning
happy-go-lucky or good-humored.
Word: __ __ __ __ __ __              Source: __ __ __ __
3.      An important
radioactive element in the development of nuclear power has a name based on
that of Roman god of death and the underworld.
Word: __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __           Source: __ __ __ __ __
4.      Warlike or
aggressive actions are described by a term derived from the name of the Roman
god of war.
Word: __ __ __ __ __ __ __                     Source: __ __ __ __
5.      Someone whose
moods are quick and changeable might be described by this term that comes from
the name of the messenger of the gods in Roman mythology.
Word: __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __                       Source: __ __ __ __ __ __
__
6.      Showing events
according to the time order in which they may occur is the definition of a word
that comes from a Greek over-god, father of Zeus and creator of the world.
Word: __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __      Source: __ __ __ __ __ __
7.      This word means
requiring extraordinary effort or strength. It comes from the name
of a Greek hero (popularized by Steve
Reaves in a host of Italian-made-movies), who had to perform twelve spectacular
feats in order to escape from bondage.
Word: __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __                Source: __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
8.      This word refers
to extraordinary feats, to any labor, either physical or intellectual that is
of far higher quality than most. It comes from the name of the mountain on
which the Greek gods lived.
Word: __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __                Source: __ __ __ __ __ __ __
CHAPTER TWO: EXERCISE 2-2
(continued)
9.      Another word for
a grain, and for a breakfast food make from grain, owes its beginnings to the
name of the Roman goddess of agriculture.
Word: __ __ __ __ __ __                          Source: __ __ __ __ __
10.  A carnival-like
show popular with children has a name based on that of a sorceress
who turned men into swine
Word: __ __ __ __ __ __                          Source: __ __ __ __ __
11.  A term from
industry that refers to a process whereby rubber is strengthened and made more
elastic comes from the name of the Roman god of the forge.
Word: __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __                       Source: __ __ __ __ __ __
12.  A term for the study
of the mind comes from the name of a goddess who was punished by Aphrodite in a
fit of jealousy.
Word: __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __      Source: __ __ __ __ __ __
13.  The end of a
railroad or other transportation route has the identical name to the Roman god
of boundaries and limits.
Word and Source: __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
14.  A word meaning
fatal or subject to death comes from the name of one of the three Roman Fates
or goddess of destiny.
Word: __ __ __ __ __ __                          Source: __ __ __ __ __
15.  A book of maps
and geographical information is called by the name of a mythical Greek giant
who was said to carry the earth on his shoulders.
Word: __ __ __ __ __
16.  Harry Belafonte
popularized this type of West Indian music that goes under a name derived from
that of an enticing sea nymph depicted by Homer.
Word and Source: __ __ __ __ __ __ __
(Author unknown – was shared at NADE (National
Association for Developmental Education) 1990
CHAPTER TWO: EXERCISE 2-3a.
ETYMOLOGY
Look up the origins of the following words in a
dictionary. Provide all of the information you can for each one such as the
meaning of the word and the country in which it originated.
Words                         Meaning
                                      
1. Africa                      ______________________________________________________
2. Kangaroo                ______________________________________________________
3. Novi                        ______________________________________________________
4. Man                         ______________________________________________________
5. Jazz                         ______________________________________________________
6. Ketchup                  ______________________________________________________
7. Gorilla                     ______________________________________________________
8. Strategy                   ______________________________________________________
9. Whisky                    ______________________________________________________
10. Zero                       ______________________________________________________
CHAPTER TWO: EXERCISE 2-3b.
1. Think of three words developed as a result of technology.
________________________________________________________________________
 
2. Think
of three words that developed as a result of
cultural, political, technological or
    other events:
________________________________________________________________________
3. Think of three words that developed as a result of the
Hip Hop culture.
________________________________________________________________________
supplemental HANDOUT
FOR YOU LEXOPHILES: (LOVERS OF WORDS)
1. A bicycle can’t stand alone because it is two-tired.
2. What’s the definition of a will? (It’s a dead giveaway)
3. Time flies like an arrow. Fruit flies like a banana.
4. A backward poet writes inverse.
5. In democracy it’s your vote that counts. In feudalism it’s your count that
votes.
6. She had a boyfriend with a wooden leg, but broke it off.
7. A chicken crossing the road is poultry in motion.
8. If you don’t pay your exorcist you get repossessed.
9. With her marriage she got a new name and a dress.
10. Show me a piano falling down a mineshaft and I’ll show you A-flat minor.
11. When a clock is hungry it goes back four seconds.
12. The man who fell into an upholstery machine is fully recovered.
13. A grenade thrown into a kitchen in France would result in Linoleum Blown
apart.
14. You feel stuck with your debt if you can’t budge it.
15. Local Area Network in Australia: the LAN downunder.
16. He often broke into song because he couldn’t find the key.
17. Every calendar’s days are numbered.
18. A lot of money is tainted. ‘Taint yours and ‘taint mine.
19. A boiled egg in the morning is hard to beat.
20. He had a photographic memory which was never developed.
21. A plateau is a high form of flattery.
22. The short fortune-teller who escaped from prison was a small medium at
large.
23. Those who get too big for their britches will be exposed in the end.
24. When you’ve seen one shopping center you’ve seen a mall.
25. Those who jump off a Paris bridge are in Seine.
26. When an actress saw her first strands of gray hair she thought she’d dye.
27. Bakers trade bread recipes on a knead to know basis.
28. Santa’s helpers are subordinate clauses.
29. Acupuncture is a jab well done.
30. Marathon runners with bad footwear suffer the agony of defeat

supplemental vocabulary quiz
There is one supplemental vocabulary quiz for this
chapter in the form of a crossword puzzle.
ANSWERS