Argument Glossary


from http://austhink.com/reason/tutorials

Glossary

An argument web is an argument which is both multi-reason and multi-layer.
chain of reasoning is a multi-layer argument.  Usually the term is applied to arguments with more than two layers.
claim is a proposition put forward by somebody as true.  A proposition is an idea which is either true or false.
Collectively exhaustive (CE): Within a group, considerations should cover all the relevant, serious arguments; they should leave no gaps. CE is the second aspect of the MECE rule.
conclusion is a claim for which some evidence is presented, whether for or against. See also contention.
contention is a claim for which some evidence is presented, whether for or against.  Logicians often use the word “conclusion” to refer to a contention. 
consideration is just a reason or an objection. It is easier to say considerations rather than the wordier  reasons and objections
Co-premises: Two premises within a single reason or objection are co-premises in relation to each other.
counter-argument to a reason is an objection to that reason’s contention, and vice versa.
debate is a dispute in which the first-level reasons and objections are themselves disputed.
declarative sentence is one which states an idea which can be true or false.
dispute is an argument in which there are both reasons and objections bearing upon a single contention.
The Golden Rule: Every simple argument has at least two co-premises.
group of considerations is all reasons and objections bearing directly upon the main contention or any other reason or objection.
hidden premise is a co-premise which is not actually stated when an argument is presented.
The Holding Hands Rule: every significant word, phrase or concept appearing in a premise of a simple argument but not in the contention must also appear in some other premise of that simple argument.
An inference objection is an objection to another simple argument, providing evidence not against any stated premise but against the relationship between the stated premises and their contention. 
An inference rebuttal is an objection to another objection which provides evidence against the inference from the stated premises of that other objection to the falsity of its contention.  
The main contention of a multi-layer argument is the one at the top level.  It is the only contention which is not also a premise in another simple argument. 
The MECE Rule: Considerations in a group should be mutually exclusive (no overlaps) and collectively exhaustive (no gaps).
multi-layer argument is an argument in which there are reasons or objections bearing upon reasons or objections.
multi-reason argument is an argument with more than one reason or objection for a single contention.
Mutually exclusive (ME): Within a group, considerations should be genuinely distinct from each other. ME is the first aspect of the MECE rule.
The No Danglers Rule: every significant word, phrase or concept appearing in one claim (contention or premise) of a simple argument must also appear in another claim.
An objection is a piece of evidence against some claim.  Technically, an objection is set of claims working together to provide evidence that another claim is false.
premise is a claim which is part of a reason or an objection.
premise objection is an objection to a stated premise of another simple argument.
premise rebuttal is an objection to an objection which provides evidence that one of the stated premises of that objection is false.
The Pyramid Rule: More general or abstract considerations should appear higher in the argument tree, and considerations at the same level of the tree should be at roughly the same level of generality or abstraction. 
The Rabbit Rule: every significant word, phrase or concept appearing in the contention of a simple argument must also appear in one of the premises.
reason is a piece of evidence in support of some claim.  Technically, a reason is a set of claims working together to provide evidence that another claim is true.
rebuttal is an objection to an objection.  A rebuttal provides evidence that an objection is not a good objection, i.e., not good evidence against its contention.
rejoinder is an objection to a reason.  A rejoinder provides evidence that a reason is not a good reason, i.e., not good evidence for its contention.
simple argument is just a contention with a single piece of reason for it, or a contention with a single objection to it. 
Stranded co-premises: Two premises are stranded from each other when they in fact belong together as part of one reason but are diagrammed as belonging to separate reasons.
Strange bedfellows: Two premises are strange bedfellows if they are diagrammed as co-premises in one reason when in fact they belong to completely different reasons.