Fallacies with Examples Article

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Logical Fallacies
Ad Hominem
Attacking the person instead of
attacking his argument. For example, “Von Daniken’s books about ancient
astronauts are worthless because he is a convicted forger and
embezzler.” (Which is true, but that’s not why they’re worthless.)
Non Sequitur
Something that just does not follow.
For example, “Tens of thousands of Americans have seen lights in the
night sky which they could not identify. The existence of life on other
planets is fast becoming certainty!”
Red Herring
Use of distraction;
Ex. Nixon discusses communists instead of dealing with the
illegal fund.
Emotive language
Emotional appeals
-Nixon
Euphemism
The use of words that sound better.
Ex. The lab rat wasn’t killed, it was sacrificed. It
wasn’t genocide, it was ethnic cleansing.
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
After this, therefore because of this.
Ex. Spending doubled when he took over as governor,
therefore, he is a wasteful spender.
Hasty Generalization
Jumping to conclusions.
Ex. All Schoharie County residents hunt deer.
Equivocation
False Analogy
Unwarranted comparison.
If one of our nuclear nay-sayers came across an elephant romping through the
woods next to our plant, then he’d probably blame his ridiculous nose on the
nuclear bogey man.
     -“Mr. Burns” from The
Simpsons 
comparing a mutated third eye of
a radioactive fish to the evolved nose of an elephant.
Begging the Question
Circular logic

– Nixon

Now, was that wrong? And let me say that it was wrong. I’m
saying, incidentally, that it was wrong and not just illegal. Because it
isn’t a question of whether it was legal or illegal, that isn’t enough. The
question is, was it morally wrong? -Nixon
Redefine
It was a little cocker spaniel dog in a crate that he’d
sent all the way from Texas. Black and white spotted. And our little
girl-Tricia, the 6-year old-named it Checkers. And you know, the kids, like
all kids, love the dog and I just want to say this right now, that regardless
of what they say about it, we’re gonna keep it.
Let me say this: I don’t believe that I ought to quit
because I’m not a quitter. 
Two-Valued Orientation
Something is either completely right or completely
wrong
. (related to over-simplification.)
Regardless of what happens I’m going to continue this
fight. I’m going to campaign up and down America until we drive the crooks
and the Communists and those that defend them out of Washington. And
remember, folks, Eisenhower is a great man. Believe me. He’s a great man. And
a vote for Eisenhower is a vote for what’s good for America. – Nixon