Forty-four Foul Ways to Win an Argument

from The Thinker’s Guide to Fallacies
1 Accuse Your Opponent of Doing What He is Accusing You of (or worse)
2 Accuse Him of Sliding Down ASlippery Slope (that leads to disaster)
3 Appeal to Authority
4 Appeal to Experience
5 Appeal to Fear
6 Appeal to Pity (or sympathy)
7 Appeal to Popular Passions
8 Appeal to Tradition or Faith (“the tried and true”)
9 Assume a Posture of Righteousness
10 Attack the person (and not the argument)
11 Beg the Question
12 Call For Perfection (Demand impossible conditions)
13 Create a False Dilemma (the Great Either/Or)
14 Devise Analogies (and Metaphors) That Support Your View (even if they are misleading or “false”)
15 Question Your Opponent’s Conclusions
16 Create Misgivings: Where There’s Smoke, There’s Fire
17 Create A Straw Man
18 Deny or Defend Your Inconsistencies
19 Demonize His Side Sanitize Yours
20 Evade Questions, Gracefully
21 Flatter Your Audience
22 Hedge What You Say
23 Ignore the Evidence
24 Ignore the Main Point
25 Attack Evidence (That Undermines Your Case)
26 Insist Loudly on a Minor Point
27 Use the Hard-Cruel-World Argument (to justify doing what is usually considered unethical)
28 Make (Sweeping) Glittering Generalizations
29 Make Much of Any Inconsistencies in Your Opponent’s Position
30 Make Your Opponent Look Ridiculous (“lost in the laugh”)
31 Oversimplify the Issue
32 Raise Nothing But Objections
33 Rewrite History (Have It Your Way)
34 Seek Your Vested Interests
35 Shift the Ground
36 Shift the Burden of Proof
37 Spin, Spin, Spin
38 Talk in Vague Generalities
39 Talk Double Talk
40 Tell Big lies
41 Treat Abstract Words and Symbols As If They Were Real Things
42 Throw In A Red Herring (or two)
43 Throw in Some Statistics
44 Use Double Standards (Whenever you can)