Inductive Reasoning TFY C11 Student Summary

TFY Ch. 11 Inductive Reasoning

Ch. 11 is about the process of inductive reasoning. The word induction comes from the Latin inducere, which means to lead in. Inductive reasoning is to reason to a conclusion about all members of a class on the basis of an examination of a few members of a class. It is going from the specific to the general. 
Inductive reasoning is essential in the sciences, and it is analogous to the scientific method. One must observe, gather data and information, then come to meanings or conclusions. Some of the methods that have been used in inductive reasoning are sensory observation, enumeration, analogical reasoning, pattern recognition, and statistical reasoning. Sensory observation is observing with the use of your senses. This includes sight, taste, touch, smell and hearing. Simply observing and recording your observations can lead to correct inferences and have in the scientific world led to scientific breakthroughs. 
Reasoning from enumeration can just be a simple counting of parts to come to a conclusion about the whole. You use extrapolation to come to that conclusion. Extrapolation is a probability estimate or projection. Analogical reasoning is coming to conclusions based on making comparisons or analogies between two seemingly different things. 
Analogical reasoning is crucial in the legal system in the United States, where legal precedents can affect the decision of a case. Patterns are also important in inductive reasoning. If patterns are recognized, then this can help in drawing conclusions about the nature of them and why they might be important. Statistical reasoning is using enumeration to predict on the basis of an estimate of probabilities. This method is used when it is impossible to examine all of the available data. 
There are five basic rules about the reliability of the conclusions that come from statistical sampling.
1. The greater the size of the sample, the more representative the sample will be of the whole.
2. The more representative the sample is, the more likely it is that accurate conclusions will be drawn about the whole.
3. One counterexample can refute a generalization.
4. If statistical evidence is offered, it should be offered in sufficient detail to permit verification.
5. When polls are taken, it is important to know whether a reputable organization took the poll and the exact formulation, or wording of the question.
Inductive reasoning is vital for us in academia and normal, everyday life. We use inductive reasoning when we don’t know something or are confused to figure out what it is.

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