13 Characteristics of Language with a
1. Facts are clearly distinguished from non-facts (assumptions, beliefs, opinions, inferences, etc.).
2. Multi-valued evaluations more often recognized than simplistic either/or, right/wrong, black/white two-valued evaluations.
3. Multiple causes for events, circumstances, behaviors, etc., are investigated and considered … not ‘the’ cause.
4. Role of the observer is not overlooked … “to-me-ness” is recognized in statements, opinions, etc.
5. Operational definitions preferred over simple classifications; what something or someone does rather that what one is.
6. Avoid objectifying (or reifying) processes and inanimate abstractions … the weather, the economy, science, security, terrorism …
7. Emphasize importance of differences, distinctions, and uniqueness — even among apparent similarities.
8. Every ‘thing’ changes all the time even when changes are not apparent … including people.
9. Limit absolute, all-inclusive terms such as: all, none, absolutely, certainly, without a doubt, best ever, like no other, exact same.
10. Our knowledge/beliefs about anything is incomplete, therefore our language should be tentative, recognize uncertainty, open to change when new knowledge arrives.
11. Take responsibility for the outputs of your own nervous system: … It made me so mad … she hurt my feelings …; actor/action/acted upon.
12. Don’t forget that there is always more data, more information, more sensory inputs … you’ll never have “all the facts;” there’s always etc.
13. Avoid perpetuating pre-scientific myths and superstitions.