Taxonomies of the Cognitive Domain Compared

Taxonomies of the Cognitive Domain:

Bloom’s Taxonomy Traditional
Anderson and Krathwohl’s Taxonomy Updated
1. Knowledge: Remembering or retrieving previously learned material. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:  
know
identify
relate
list
define
recall
memorize
repeat
record
name
recognize
acquire
1. Remembering: Retrieving, recalling, or recognizing knowledge from memory. Remembering is when memory is used to produce definitions, facts, or lists, or recite or retrieve material.
2. Comprehension: The ability to grasp or construct meaning from material. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:  
restate
locate
report
recognize
explain
express
identify
discuss
describe
review
infer
conclude
illustrate
interpret
draw
represent
differentiate
2. Understanding:  Constructing meaning from different types of functions be they written or graphic messages activities like interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining. 
3. Application: The ability to use learned material, or to implement material in new and concrete situations. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:  
apply
relate
develop
translate
use
operate
organize
employ
restructure
interpret
demonstrate
illustrate
practice
calculate
show
exhibit
dramatize
3. Applying:  Carrying out or using a procedure throughexecuting, or implementing. Applying related and refers to situations where learned material is used through products like models, presentations, interviews or simulations.
4. Analysis: The ability to break down or distinguish the parts of material into its components so that its organizational structure may be better understood. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:  
analyze
compare
probe
inquire
examine
contrast
categorize
differentiate
contrast
investigate
detect
survey
classify
deduce
experiment
scrutinize
discover
inspect
dissect
discriminate
separate
4. Analyzing:  Breaking material or concepts into parts, determining how the parts relate or interrelate to one another or to an overall structure or purpose. Mental actions included in this function are differentiating, organizing, and attributing, as well as being able to distinguish between the components or parts. When one is analyzing he/she can illustrate this mental function by creating spreadsheets, surveys, charts, or diagrams, or graphic representations.
5. Synthesis: The ability to put parts together to form a coherent or unique new whole. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:  
compose
produce
design
assemble
create
prepare
predict
modify
tell
plan
invent
formulate
collect
set up
generalize
document
combine
relate
propose
develop
arrange
construct
organize
originate
derive
write
propose 
5. Evaluating:  Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing. Critiques, recommendations, and reports are some of the products that can be created to demonstrate the processes of evaluation.  In the newer taxonomy evaluation comes before creating as it is often a necessary part of the precursory behavior before creating something.   
Picture (12x12, 308 bytes) Remember this one has now changed places with the last one on the other side.
6. Evaluation: The ability to judge, check, and even critique the value of material for a given purpose. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:  
judge
assess
compare
evaluate
conclude
measure
deduce
argue
decide
choose
rate
select
estimate
validate
consider
appraise
value
criticize
infer 
6. Creating: Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing. Creating requires users to put parts together in a new way or synthesize parts into something new and different a new form or product.  This process is the most difficult mental function in the new taxonomy. 
Picture (12x12, 308 bytes) This one used to be #5 in Bloom’s known as synthesis.
Table 1.1  Bloom vs. Anderson/Krathwohl 
Visual comparison of the two taxonomies
newbloom
One of the things that clearly differentiates the new model from that of the 1956 original is that it lays out components nicely so they can be considered and used, and so cognitive processes as related to chosen instructional tasks can be easily documented and tracked. This feature has the potential to make teacher assessment, teacher self-assessment, and student assessment easier or clearer as usage patterns emerge.
Perhaps surprisingly, these levels of knowledge were indicated in Bloom’s original work – factual, conceptual, and procedural – but these were never fully understood or used by teachers because most of what educators were given in training consisted of a simple chart with the listing of levels and related accompanying verbs. The full breadth of Handbook I and its recommendations on types of knowledge were rarely discussed in any instructive or useful way. Nor were teachers in training ever made aware of any of the criticisms leveled against the original model. Please note that in the updated version the term “metacognitive” has been added to the array of knowledge types.
Here are the intersections as the processes impact the levels of knowledge. Using a simple cross impact grid or table like the one below, one can match easily activities and objectives to the types of knowledge and to the cognitive processes as well. It is a very useful tool to use in assessing how instruction is actually impacting levels of learning. Teachers can also use it to track which levels of cognition they are requiring from students, as well as which dimensions of knowledge.  
Cognitive Processes
The Knowledge Dimensions
1.
 Remember
2. Understand
3.
Apply
4.
Analyze
5.
Evaluate
6.
Create
Factual
Conceptual
Procedural
Metacognitive
Knowledge Dimensions Defined:  
Factual Knowledge is knowledge that is basic to specific disciplines. This dimension refers to essential facts, terminology, details or elements students must know or be familiar with in order to understand a discipline or solve a problem in it. 
Conceptual Knowledge is knowledge of classifications, principles, generalizations, theories, models, or structures pertinent to a particular disciplinary area.   
Procedural Knowledge refers to information or knowledge that helps students to do something specific to a discipline, subject, area of study. It also refers to methods of inquiry, very specific or finite skills, algorithms, techniques, and particular methodologies. 
Metacognitive Knowledge is the awareness of one�s own cognition and particular cognitive processes. It is strategic or reflective knowledge about how to go about solving problems, cognitive tasks, to include contextual and conditional knowledge and knowledge of self. 
A comprehensive example from the book is provided with publisher permission at http://www.scribd.com/doc/933640/Bloom-Revised

http://www4.uwsp.edu/education/lwilson/curric/newtaxonomy.htm

    Sources:
     Anderson, L. W. and David R. Krathwohl, D. R., et al (Eds..) (2001) A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Allyn & Bacon. Boston, MA (Pearson Education Group) 
     Bloom, B.S. and Krathwohl, D. R. (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals, by a committee of college and university examiners. Handbook I: Cognitive Domain. NY, NY: Longmans, Green