Textbook Organization – 2 – Exercises

Authors usually organize information using certain
classic patterns or methods.  The organizational methods include:
Recognizing the organizational method an author is using, you will:
find it easier to understand textbook
remember what you have read.    
learn and retain information more
A useful way to recognize an author’s method of organization:
look for the organizational signal words (OSW’s) that
indicate which pattern he or she is using. 
look at and assess the author’s overall
method of organization.
Authors frequently use more than one method from paragraph to paragraph,
but commonly have one overall method for each chapter of their textbooks.

The six
paragraphs provide examples of the following organizational methods:

#1:  Cause/Effect
#2:  Analysis
#3:  Compare/Contrast
#4:  Sequence
#5:  Listing
#6:  Definition
Paragraph 1
It is evident that a tremendous amount of change has occurred in
education since online courses were first introduced. Without online courses,
students would be restricted to the traditional classroom, onsite courses,
which meet at specific times, on specific days. 
Although online courses aren’t for everyone, students who prefer this
format say that it has allowed them to access an education that might not have
been possible, otherwise.  Many students
say that they have to work during the times that their courses are usually
offered, or they are homebound for a number of reasons.   Because online courses have become so
popular, it has caused colleges and universities to rethink the way that they
offer instruction.  As a result, many
colleges and universities have significantly increased the number of online
courses over the last five years.
Paragraph 2
Online courses have many qualities that make them desirable,
although they are not for everyone.  They
are convenient.  If the weather is
inclement, you don’t have to leave your home. 
And, you can study as early or as late as you’d like; some students
prefer working at 3:00 A.M.  Many single
parents find this method of instruction more economical.  They save a lot of money by not having to use
daycare services which can be very expensive. 
Also, online courses allow students to learn at a rate that’s comfortable
for them.  Some students may need more or
less time to complete assignments. 
Online courses are more flexible with the amount of time needed for
course work.
Paragraph 3
For years, some students have been home-schooled for their entire
K-12 education.  Many thought that the
quality of education would suffer if students weren’t attending school
everyday, five days a week.  But, this
isn’t so.  Studies have shown that
home-schooled children are doing very well in post-secondary institutions and
are keeping up or doing better than traditionally schooled children.  Online courses, like home-schooling, are
sharing similar results.  Many students
learn just as effectively at home as those students who attend structured
courses on campus.   Also like home-schooled
students, online students can create their own schedules.    Unlike home-schooled children, students who
take online courses, will be expected to interact with other students in the
courses. And, instead of talking and listening to your instructor and fellow
students, they will be typing and reading. 
Finally, a significant difference is the discipline required for online
courses.  Online students don’t have
anyone reminding them to do their work; it’s very easy for students who aren’t
self directed and motivated to slip behind.
Paragraph 4
Enrolling in online classes is very easy when you follow several
easy steps.  First, you need to complete
the Admissions Form, which may be done online. 
Second, you will need to submit
opener material (continUED)
ACT or SAT scores; or, you will be required to take a Placement
Test.  If you need to take a Placement
Test, it will be necessary to take the test on campus.  Third, you will need to connect with a
counselor, which can be done online, or in person. He or she will access your
test scores and Admissions Form, and will help you to select appropriate
courses.  The counselor will also create
a college plan for you, so you will have an outline of your required
classes.  The college will assist you in
creating achievable goals.  Fourth, once
you have “met” with a counselor, you are able to register for your courses
through the college’s Web program. 
Finally, the college will email verification of courses and payment to
you.  Your verification will also include
an invitation to attend an orientation, which is optional.
Paragraph 5
For students who are self-directed, there are many advantages to
taking online courses.  First, they are
very convenient.  You can establish your
own schedule for most of the course work. 
Second, you don’t have to worry about inclement weather.  If it is snowing or raining, you don’t have
to leave the comfort of your home. 
Third, you don’t have to worry about parking your car on campus, which
means that you save money by not having to purchase a parking permit or extra
gasoline. Finally, many students say that they don’t feel as inhibited and tend
to ask more questions.  As a result,
these students say that they develop more meaningful relationships with online
instructors and feel more engaged in the learning process. 
Paragraph 6
An online course is a course that is taught completely via the
Internet with definite start and end dates. 
It can be taken “anytime, anyplace.” 
It is not meant to be an independent study class though.  It is a course option that provides students
who may not otherwise be able to come to campus to take courses or who find
on-campus courses inconvenient due to work and family schedules.
Based on what
you know about methods of organization and organizational cue words, what
method of organization would you predict the author is going to use to develop
her ideas, using the following sentences: 
C/E – Cause and Effect   Seq – Sequence          An
– Analysis
L – listing                           Def –
Definition        C/C – Comparison and
The full moon tends to have a strange
effect on many human beings.  ____
There are many reasons that led up to the
Vietnam war.   ____
There are several steps to developing a
role of film.  ____
There are three primary types of yellow
summer flowers.  ____
The word “teacher” has many
meanings.  ____
The characteristics of a typical college
freshman have changed since the1920’s. ____
Several distinguishing features separates
the Blue Indian Angel bird from all other birds. ____
8.      Prior
to 2000, the Volkswagon “Bug” is similar to the new version, but
there are also notable differences.  ____
Michigan and Ohio have reached opposite
conclusions in the ongoing debate over the better football team.  _____
10.  John
Xiu has redefined academic excellence. 
11.  Several
supplies are needed for the camping trip, they include a compass, hiking shoes,
a tent, a flashlight, and cooking utensils. 
12.  There
are new developments in Martha’s case which will cause a lengthy delay.  ____
13.  On
the other hand, a two year college is less expensive and provides quality
instruction.  ____
14.  Consequently,
the flowers will die if they are not moved to a shadier spot.  ____
15.  Conversely,
Jill was kind and offered to help in any way. 
16.  Colors
and patterns characterize this butterfly. 
17.  The
long-term economic strength of our country will depend upon several
factors.  ____
Pair up with one other student and together, label the
method of organization of each of the following types of readings that you see
everyday in print.
ingredients on a bottle of ketchup                                    method:  ____________________________
directions to Walt Disney World in Florida         method: 
a news article from the front page                                    method:  ____________________________      of the paper
the names of sexually transmitted diseases and their
description from a university health services pamphlet                                              method:  ____________________________
an advice column from Cosmopolitan                  method:  ____________________________
an obituary                                                            method:  ____________________________
the operating directions for a new                        method:  ____________________________ Compaq computer
a pamphlet from Mothers Against Drunk Driving
(M.A.D.D.) describing how much alcohol it takes to become impaired and what
happens when people drive drunk
                                                                                    method:  ____________________________
a parking ticket                                                     method:
10.  a
Time magazine article describing how
teen-aged boys and girls handle bullies in school
method:  ____________________________
supplemental vocabulary quiz
There is one supplemental vocabulary quiz for this
Answers for Crossword Puzzle
Chapter eight vocabulary QUIZ
1              Organizational Word Clues
9              method author uses to show why
something happened and the effects that occurred as a result
11           contempt
12           braid
13           method that lists a series of ideas,
or items
2              method that shows steps or
chronological order of events
3              method that shows how concepts are
alike and different
4              method which defines words and/or
5              quietly modest
6              a woman who is not legally a wife
but lives with a man and has a recognized position in his household
7              critical judges
8              marked by display of feeling
10           method that breaks apart a concept,
presents basic elements