— 12 — Inductive Fallacies; Reading; Understanding and Creating Visuals

— 12 — Fallacies TFY C10 Fallacies; 
CRCB Part III – Advanced Strategies for Critical Reading

CRCB C11: Reading, Understanding and Creating Visuals

TFY Chapter Ten Fallacies

This chapter will teach you about the names and meanings of eleven fallacies. Fallacies may be accidental or intentional; many are amusing, all are manipulative; each sidesteps the work of constructing a fair and well-reasoned argument. Multiple examples and exercises will teach you how to recognize a number of basic fallacies and understand why they are fallacious

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Chapter 10 back to top

Here are two more perspectives on the fallacies with definitions and examples.


Chapter 10

Appeal to Bandwagon This fallacy seeks to persuade by appealing to the wisdom of the momentum of a popular opinion.
Appeal to False Authority This fallacy seeks to persuade by citing fake, questionable, or inappropriate authority.
Appeal to Fear This fallacy seeks to persuade by arousing fear that clouds rationality.
Appeal to Pity This fallacy seeks to persuade by arousing pity.
Circular Reasoning This fallacy assumes what it is supposed to prove by reasserting the conclusion, sometimes in different words, as though this conclusion needed no supporting reasons.
Fallacy A fallacy is an invalid, argument that can be deceptive or misleading.
Fallacy of Word Ambiguity This fallacy seeks to gain an advantage in an argument by using vague undefined words that can be interpreted in more than one way.
Infer To use imagination and reasoning to fill in missing facts. To connect the dots.
Misleading Euphemisms This fallacy hides meaning by creating words that make a less acceptable idea seem positive or unrecognizable.
Opinion Opinion is a word used to include an unsupported belief, a supported argument, an expert’s judgment, prevailing public sentiment, and a formal statement by a court.
Personal Attack This fallacy attacks a person’s character without addressing the issue.
Pointing to Another Wrong This fallacy distracts attention from an admitted wrongdoing by claiming that similar actions went unnoticed and unpunished.
Poisoning the Well This fallacy seeks to prejudice others against a person, group or idea so that their arguments cannot be heard on their own merits.
Prejudicial Language This fallacy attempts to persuade through the use of loaded words that convey a bias.
Principal claim and reasons These are the two parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an assertion about something.
Red Herring This fallacy distracts attention away from the lack of proof for a claim by raising irrelevant issues.
Straw man This fallacy misrepresents or caricatures an opponent’s position, then refutes the false replica created.
Thinking Purposeful mental activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing, expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining, devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.

Critical Reading for College and Beyond
CHAPTER GOALS After learning Chapter 11, you should be able to demonstrate:
How to read visual information, such as charts, graphs, and photos.
Why authors select particular visuals to convey certain types of information to their readers.
How to create visuals to help you remember information your have learned from your texts.
Purpose of Visual Aids?
Visual aids provide a quick, easily accessible format for information that shows how information is connected and/or the meaning.
Types of Visual Aids in Textbooks
Charts and tables
Graphs – bar graphs, line graphs, pictographs, and pie graphs
Time Lines
Creating Visual Aids
Mind Maps
Free Form Drawings
Guide for Selecting a Visual Aid
Charts – compare data
Diagrams – represent places, things, processes
Photographs – show actual events
Outlines – show linear organization
Time Lines – represent chronology of events
What If I’m Not an Artist?
You don’t need to be an artist to make effective visuals.
Visuals only have to make sense to you.
Visuals should be labeled so that you remember key information.
Chapter Vocabulary
Bar Graphs
Pie Graphs
Free-Form Drawings
Line Graphs
Time Lines
Mind Maps
Concept Maps