Texts / Instructional Materials

Instructional Materials and References REQUIRED TEXTS: Mayfield, M. (2007). Thinking for yourself. (8th Ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning: Wadsworth. ISBN: 978-1-4282-3144-3 (TFY) Daiek, D., & Anter, N. (2004) Critical reading for college and beyond. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 0072473762 (CRCB) RECOMMENDED TEXT: Harris, Robert. A. Creative Problem Solving. Los Angeles: Pyrczak Publishing, 2002. ISBN: 1-884585-43-4 (CPS) COMPANION SITES Thinking for Yourself Site Critical Reading for College and Beyond Companion site: Note: Course and student blogs and wiki sites to be presented in class

Characteristics of a Critical Thinker, Cognitive Domain




Characteristics of a Critical Thinker, Cognitive Domain

· Knowledge Level – factual data, main ideas, sequence of events, directions (Although it’s the most basic level, it’s just as important as all the other levels. It provides the who, what, where, and when information.)
· Comprehension Level – understanding, translating, paraphrasing, summarizing
· Application Level – problem solving, applying appropriate rules, predicting outcomes by application of principles
· Analysis Level – examination of component parts, identifying relationships between parts, comparing likes and differences of the parts
· Synthesis Level – reorganization or fusion of elements into new combinations
· Evaluation Level – formulating criteria and judging an idea/concept or object against that criteria
Review Presentations

— 12 — Inductive Fallacies; Reading; Understanding and Creating Visuals



— 12 — Fallacies TFY C10 Fallacies; 
CRCB Part III – Advanced Strategies for Critical Reading

CRCB C11: Reading, Understanding and Creating Visuals

TFY Chapter Ten Fallacies

This chapter will teach you about the names and meanings of eleven fallacies. Fallacies may be accidental or intentional; many are amusing, all are manipulative; each sidesteps the work of constructing a fair and well-reasoned argument. Multiple examples and exercises will teach you how to recognize a number of basic fallacies and understand why they are fallacious

Web Links

Chapter 10 back to top
LOGICAL FALLACIES

Here are two more perspectives on the fallacies with definitions and examples.
http://www.csun.edu/~dgw61315/fallacies.html

.

Chapter 10

Appeal to Bandwagon This fallacy seeks to persuade by appealing to the wisdom of the momentum of a popular opinion.
Appeal to False Authority This fallacy seeks to persuade by citing fake, questionable, or inappropriate authority.
Appeal to Fear This fallacy seeks to persuade by arousing fear that clouds rationality.
Appeal to Pity This fallacy seeks to persuade by arousing pity.
Circular Reasoning This fallacy assumes what it is supposed to prove by reasserting the conclusion, sometimes in different words, as though this conclusion needed no supporting reasons.
Fallacy A fallacy is an invalid, argument that can be deceptive or misleading.
Fallacy of Word Ambiguity This fallacy seeks to gain an advantage in an argument by using vague undefined words that can be interpreted in more than one way.
Infer To use imagination and reasoning to fill in missing facts. To connect the dots.
Misleading Euphemisms This fallacy hides meaning by creating words that make a less acceptable idea seem positive or unrecognizable.
Opinion Opinion is a word used to include an unsupported belief, a supported argument, an expert’s judgment, prevailing public sentiment, and a formal statement by a court.
Personal Attack This fallacy attacks a person’s character without addressing the issue.
Pointing to Another Wrong This fallacy distracts attention from an admitted wrongdoing by claiming that similar actions went unnoticed and unpunished.
Poisoning the Well This fallacy seeks to prejudice others against a person, group or idea so that their arguments cannot be heard on their own merits.
Prejudicial Language This fallacy attempts to persuade through the use of loaded words that convey a bias.
Principal claim and reasons These are the two parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an assertion about something.
Red Herring This fallacy distracts attention away from the lack of proof for a claim by raising irrelevant issues.
Straw man This fallacy misrepresents or caricatures an opponent’s position, then refutes the false replica created.
Thinking Purposeful mental activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing, expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining, devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.

CRCB 11
Critical Reading for College and Beyond
CHAPTER ELEVEN — SLIDES OUTLINE
CHAPTER GOALS After learning Chapter 11, you should be able to demonstrate:
How to read visual information, such as charts, graphs, and photos.
Why authors select particular visuals to convey certain types of information to their readers.
How to create visuals to help you remember information your have learned from your texts.
Purpose of Visual Aids?
Visual aids provide a quick, easily accessible format for information that shows how information is connected and/or the meaning.
Types of Visual Aids in Textbooks
Charts and tables
Diagrams
Illustrations
Graphs – bar graphs, line graphs, pictographs, and pie graphs
Photographs
Time Lines
Creating Visual Aids
Outlines
Mind Maps
Charts
Matrices
Free Form Drawings
Guide for Selecting a Visual Aid
Charts – compare data
Diagrams – represent places, things, processes
Photographs – show actual events
Outlines – show linear organization
Time Lines – represent chronology of events
What If I’m Not an Artist?
You don’t need to be an artist to make effective visuals.
Visuals only have to make sense to you.
Visuals should be labeled so that you remember key information.
Chapter Vocabulary
Charts
Diagrams
Outlines
Bar Graphs
Pie Graphs
Photographs
Free-Form Drawings
Illustrations
Line Graphs
Tables
Time Lines
Mind Maps
Concept Maps
Pictographs                                                              

Opinions; Details


Opinions– What’s Believed? ,TFY-C6;

Details, CRCB-C6;

TFY Chapter Summaries

Chapter Six Opinions
This chapter explores that familiar word opinion and examines the way it affects our ability to think critically. Again we have a familiar but confusing word that can be used in many different ways. Exercises are offered to help you assess your understanding of the different varieties of opinion. Writing applications ask you to test and expand what you know into essays that articulate, support, describe, or analyze opinions. Readings show you how professional writers can present support for an opinion; in one case through direct statement, and in a second case through a satirical sub-statement.

Glossaries

Chapter 6

Advice Advice is to recommend an opinion to someone else.
Infer To use imagination and reasoning to fill in missing facts. To connect the dots.
Judgment Judgment is a final opinion, decision, conclusion or evaluation about something.
Opinion Opinion is a word used to include an unsupported belief, a supported argument, an expert’s judgment, prevailing public sentiment, and a formal statement by a court.
Personal taste or preference Personal taste or preferences are forms of opinions that express likes or dislikes. They can be irrational and need not be supported with reasons.
Principal claim and reasons These are the two parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an assertion about something.
Thinking Purposeful mental activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing, expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining, devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.

Web Links
Chapter 6 back to top
EPINIONS
Who says your opinion doesn’t count? Consult a popular site consisting of reviews on cars, books, movies, music, computers, sports, travel etc. made by “real people.”
http://www.epinions.com/
READERS’ OPINIONS
Consult this daily section of the New York Times that prints readers’ responses to featured articles.
http://www.nytimes.com/pages/readersopinions/index.html
WORLD-WIDE OPINION
Here are links editorials appearing in an international array of newspapers.
http://www.uwb.edu/library/guides/SelectionWorldNews.htm
WRITING YOUR OPINION TO NEWSPAPERS
This excellent site offers specific information about how to write letters to editors and op-eds that will be published. It is especially designed for non-profits.
http://www.ccmc.org/oped.htm


— 05– Inferences – Assumptions – Time


— 05 — Inference

Web Links

TFY Chapter 4

TPCT Ch. 9: Inference to the Best Explanation

Johnny Depp

Inference Riddles

INFERENCES DEFINED

Inference Glossary (TFY)

Here are some more definitions of inferences.

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/inferences

SHERLOCK HOLMES

Learn more about Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and his works.

http://www.sherlockian.net/

UNDERSTANDING INFERENCES

Content Inference Links:

— 04 — Facts


— 04 — Facts

TFY C3, Facts 

Chapter Summary

Chapter Three Facts

This chapter concerns some of the complexities of the word fact: how facts are determined, how they relate to observations, how facts get confused with inferences, how facts relate to truth and reality, how they relate to language. The chapter provides you with ample exercises for identifying facts, for learning how to assess their reliability, how to note them in reading, and how to state them accurately in writing. Reading selections by Larry Woodward and Princess Diana demonstrate how a report or argument based on facts can result in reading that can be both informative and highly disturbing.

Facts Glossary

Glossary
Chapter 3
Absolute An absolute is something that is perfect, complete, always true, something never to be doubted or questioned.
Accuracy A standard of being true, correct, and precise; free from error.
Certain Certain is a characteristic of something fixed, assured, or inevitable.
Currency Information that remains true or existent rather than obsolete our outdated.
Fact A fact is something proven to be true, real, existing or to have existed.
Fiction Fiction is an idea or story based on imagination rather than reality.
Objective/Subjective Objective is to be impartial, free of bias or prejudice. Subjective is to be swayed by bias or prejudice rather than facts and evidence.
Plausibility This standard weighs the reasonability of a event or explanation.
Probability This standard estimates the likelihood that an event occurred or will occur.
Reliability Sources or information proven to be dependable and predictable over time.
Verifiability Facts can be confirmed as true or not true and/or in existence or past existence or not, or by other sources such as records, witnesses and evidence.
Verify To verify is to test and confirm the truth, accuracy, or existence of something.

Fact or Opinion
Facts or Opinion Exercise

FACT OR FICTION?

If you are interested in eRumors, study this site. What standards do they use for sorting out fact from fiction?

http://www.truthorfiction.com/

FACTS

List the different types of facts that you can find at this site.

http://www.refdesk.com/

FACTS ABOUT FOOD

Click on one of the 50 most popular fast food outlets. Select one featured product. Study the graphs that offer such facts as the ratio of carbohydrates to fats to proteins in this product.

http://nutritiondata.com/

QUICK FACTS

Write down one new facts you learned from the US Census Bureau about people, business, or geography in your state, county or city.

http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/index.html

Fact vs Opion, etc.

Facts vs Inference Module

Story A


— 02 — Observation — Reading

— 02– Observation –

 TFY C1, Observation ;

TPCT C2 Obstacles to Critical Thinking

“““““““““““““““““““““““““““““““““““““““
PART I
BASICS OF CRITICAL THINKING

Thinking Skills

  • Understand the logical connections between ideas.
  • •  Formulate ideas succinctly and precisely.
  • •  Identify, construct, and evaluate
    arguments.
  • •  Evaluate the pros and cons of a decision.
  • •  Evaluate the evidence for and against a
    hypothesis.
  • •  Detect inconsistencies and common
    mistakes in reasoning.
  • •  Analyze problems systematically.
  • •  Identify the relevance and importance of
    ideas.
  • •  Justify one’s beliefs and values.
  • •  Reflect and evaluate one’s thinking
    skills.

    Lau, J.Y.F. An introduction to critical thinking and
    creativity. (2011) Wiley

CHAPTER 1: OBSERVATION SKILLS

GLOSSARY

Chapter 1
Glossary
Keywords
Definition
Accommodation
Schema adjustment/creation
Accommodation is
achieved when we can do the thinking needed to create a new schema or modify
an old schema in order to explain a new experience.
Assimilation
Schema integration
Assimilation is
achieved when we can integrate new experiences into existing schemas.
Disequilibrium
Confusion
The confusion and
discomfort felt when a new experience cannot be integrated into existing
schemas.
Equilibrium
Well being/ Adjusted
A stable inner
feeling of well being that we feel when our thinking enables us to modify or
create a new schema that better explains our world.
Hypothesis
Trial idea
Hypothesis is a
trial idea, tentative explanation, or theory that can be tested and used to
further an investigation.
Observe
watch
To watch with
attentive awareness.
Perceiving
Regard// interpret
/ sense-making
To regard and
interpret what the senses tell us.
Principal claim and
reasons
Thesis/conclusion
and evidence
These are the two
parts of an argument. The principal claim is the thesis or conclusion. The
reasons support this claim through evidence or other claims. A claim is an
assertion about something.
Schema
Mental files/
understanding
Schemas are the
mental files in which we store our explanations of experiences.
Sensing
Sense-using
To make use of such
senses as sight, hearing, and touch.
Thinking
Purposeful mental
activities
Purposeful mental
activity such as reasoning, deciding, judging, believing, supposing,
expecting, intending, recalling, remembering, visualizing, imagining,
devising, inventing, concentrating, conceiving, considering.

Link

Observe like Sherlock Holmes:  http://lifehacker.com/5960811/how-to-develop-sherlock-holmes-like-powers-of-observation-and-deduction

Observation Exercises:

What do you observe in this classroom?

How Many Hearts?

How Many Dolphins?

“““““““““““““““
Observation: Five Senses

Glossary: Chapter 1