APA Documentation

APA Documentation

APA Tutorial Link:  

   Like the MLA documentation, the APA format contains two steps: parenthetical reference

   citations and a reference list.

   The reference list contains the sources used in writing the paper.

   The parenthetical citations document the research by citing in the text the author

    and date of the researched work.

Parenthetical citations
The parenthetical citation is generally formed by using the first item—the unindented item—in the reference entry and the year when that work was published.

Generally use the author’s last name and the year only of publication with a

comma separating the two, as in (Gibaldi, 1995).

For subsequent references within a paragraph, give the name only.
Commonly use the first item from the reference list, usually the author’s or authors’ names, in the text with the date in parentheses following, as in Rodrigues and Tuman (1996) assert that . . .
If there is more than one author, give the names of all the authors, up to five authors, for the first citation. 
For the subsequent citations for that work in the paper, use the first name of the author and et al plus the date. 
For subsequent citations in the same paragraph, use the first name and et al only.
Example:  (Garibaldi, Rodrigues, Tuman, Dodds, & Mann, 1996) first citation
(Garibaldi et al., 1996) second and subsequent citations in the paper
(Garibaldi et al.) subsequent citations in the paragraph
If you use the same work in a different paragraph, you must use the second example (Garibaldi et al., 1996), etc.
If there are six or more authors, use the first author’s last name and et al. and follow the same procedure above for subsequent use of that work in the same paragraph.
For group authors, write out the entire name for the first citation in a paper and put the abbreviated form of that name in brackets.
For subsequent citations, use the abbreviated form.
Example:  (National Rifle Association [NRA], 2004) first citation
(NRA, 2004) subsequent citations in the paper

If there is no author, use the first item, such as the title of a work, in a

shortened form that is easily connected to the entry in the reference list.

If the first item is a chapter or article title, put that title in quotation marks
and capitalize key words, as in (“Other Abbreviations,” 1994).
If there is no date, include the abbreviation n.d. in the citation, as in (“Bells,” n.d.) or (Charez, n.d.).
When citing an indirect source (information that is cited in the source that you are citing), use the phrase as cited in, followed by the author of the source in which you found the information, as in (as cited in Crane, 1992).

The citation is placed immediately after the information used.

Ending punctuation goes after the citation, as in (Dodds, 1997).

            Always give page numbers for direct quotations from print sources.

Quotation marks used with material directly quoted go before the citation, as in

“. . . preaches on right way” (Dodds, 1997, p. 231).

Sample reference citations are included with the sample APA citations.


References list


The reference list is arranged alphabetically at the end of the paper.

            The page is entitled References.

General entry guidelines:

In the APA format, the items are arranged in this order (with exceptions for specialized entries, where more or different information is required): 


                  title of work within work.


                  title of entire work and article

    (chapter page numbers or edition

                        and/or volume number).

                  translator’s name

                  city of publication:



1. Follow the order exactly and use the correct punctuation to mark titles and to
separate items.
2. Use a hanging indent which means that you indent every line except the first..
Write out the surname only and abbreviate the first and middle names, as in
Stevenson, R. L.
3. Do not capitalize key words in titles even if they are capitalized in the work.
4. Italicize titles of books and names of newspapers and magazines. 
5. Neither underline nor put quotation marks around titles of essays, poems, short
stories, and magazine and newspaper articles.
6.When more than one city is listed for the place of publication, give the first city
7. Do not use shortened names for publishing companies.
a. Use W. W. Norton, University of Nebraska Press, American Psychological Association, etc.
b. Write out the words Books and Press, but omit unnecessary words, such as
Publishers, Inc., or Co.
8. Do not abbreviate months when they are required in dates.
9. Dates are given in parentheses immediately following the author’s name.  Give year, then month and day, if necessary, as in (1996, October 29).
10. For works within works, such as essays, short stories, etc., give inclusive page numbers in parentheses immediately after the underlined title of the main work, as in Images of the Plains:  The role of human nature in settlement (pp. 59-74).
11. Use the abbreviations p. or pp. to indicate page numbers with book titles and
newspaper articles.
12. Give full number for the ending page number in all situations, as in 764-778.
13. If the article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers and separate
them with a comma, as in 764-778, 785-786.
For further examples, consult the Publication Manual of the American

 Psychological Association, 5th edition.



1. Book with one author
2. Book with more than one author
3. Book with more than three authors or editors
4. Book with group or corporate author
5. Two or more works with the same author
6. Book with no author named
7. Edition
8. Book with editor
9. Edited book or anthology
10. One selection from an edited collection or anthology
11. Cross-reference or more than one selection from the same anthology
12. Article from a collection of reprinted magazine articles
13. Introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword
14. Translated or illustrated book
15. Work in more than one volume
16.  Reprint of an older book
17. Book from a series
18. Title within a title
19. Pamphlet
20. Government publication or report
21. Unpublished dissertation
22. Published and unpublished letters
23. Maps, charts, graphs, illustrations
24. Monograph
Reference works
25. Dictionary
26. Signed reference article
27. Unsigned reference article
28. Signed article from daily newspaper
29. Unsigned article from daily newspaper
30. Editorial, letter to the editor, review
31. Article from weekly magazine
32. Article in monthly magazine
33. Journal article with continuous pagination
34. Journal article with single-issue pagination
35. Abstract
36. Unpublished data or survey
Nonprint Sources
37. Interview
38. Lecture or speech
39. Published conference proceedings
40. Film or videotape
41. Recording
42. Live performance
43. Musical composition or work of art
44. Radio or television program
Electronic Sources
45. Material from library server or material with printed form
46. Material with no printed form
47. Electronic text
48. CD-ROM


APA Documentation
The basic pattern is author, date, title of the work used, publishing information, copyright date. Indent every line except the first line and double space within each entry.
The parenthetical citation, the citation formed used in the text, is given after each entry.
1. Book with one author
French, A. (1993). Billy. New York: Penguin Books.
Parenthetical citation
(French, 1993)
2. Book with more than one author
Horton, R. W., & H. W. Edwards. (1974). Backgrounds of American literary thought (3rd
ed). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Parenthetical citation
(Horton  & Edwards, 1974)
Schlissel, L., Gibbens, B., & Hampsten, E. (1989). Far from home: Families of
the westward journey. New York: Schocken Books.
Give the names of all authors involved and invert each name. Separate the names of the last two authors with an ampersand &.
Parenthetical citation
(Schlissel, Gibbens, & Hampsten, 1989)
Use the names of all the authors the first time the citation occurs; thereafter, give the name of the first author only and use et al. to refer to the other authors.
3. Book with seven or more authors or editors
Abrams, M. H., et al. (Eds.). (1968). The Norton anthology of English literature.
New York: W. W. Norton.
List the first name given among the authors or editors and use the abbreviation et al. for all other names.
Parenthetical citation
(Abrams et al., 1968)
Do not indicate that the names refer to editors in the parenthetical citation.
4. Book with group or corporate author
Editors of American Heritage Magazine. (1985). Guide to America’s greatest
historic places. New York: Author.
If the publisher and the author are the same, use the word Author for the publisher.
Parenthetical citation
(Editors of American Heritage Magazine, 1985)
5. Two or more works by the same author
Willis, C. (1992). Doomsday book. New York: Bantam Books.
Willis, C. (1994). Uncharted territory. New York: Bantam Books.
The entries are arranged by author’s name with the earliest work first. The author’s name is given for each entry.
Parenthetical citation
(Willis, Doomsday, 1992)
6. Book with no author named
New 1997 catalog: The Swiss Colony®. (1997). Monroe, WI: Swiss Colony.
Parenthetical citation
(New, 1997)
7. Edition
Da Silva, Z. S. (1968). Beginning Spanish: A concept approach (2nd ed.). 
New York: Harper & Row.
Parenthetical citation
(Da Silva, 1968)
8. Book with editor
Ferguson, G., & Ferguson, L. (1996). 1996-97: Britain by rail (C. Martin, Ed.,
16th ed.). Old Saybrook, CT: Globe Pequot Press.
When you have an editor and an edition, give the editor’s name first and place it behind the book’s title.
Parenthetical citation
(Ferguson & Ferguson, 1996)
9. Edited book or anthology
Perrine, L., & Arp, T. R. (Eds). (1993). Literature: Structure, sound, and sense (6th
ed.). Fort Worth: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.
Parenthetical citation
(Perrine & Arp, 1993)
10. One selection from an edited collection or anthology
Cather, W. (1987). Neighbour Rosicky. In D. McQuade, R. Atwan, M. Banta,
J. Kaplan, D. Minter, C. Tichi, et al. (Eds.), The Harper American literature
(Vol 2, pp. 1043-64). New York: Harper & Row. (Original work published 1928)
Parenthetical citation
 (Cather, 1928/1987)
11. Cross-reference or more than one selection from the same anthology
For more than one work from the same collection, provide full information for each work. 
12. Article from a collection of reprinted magazine articles
Stone, K., & Kalish, R. A. (1976). Of  poker, roles, and aging: Description,
discussion, and data. In C. S. Kart & B. B. Manard (Eds.), Aging in America: 
Readings in social gerontology (pp. 286-301). Sherman Oaks, CA: Alfred Press. 
(Reprinted from International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 48
pp.1-13, 1973)
Give the original source in parentheses after the source for the work used. Do not put a period after the parenthetical element at the end. Key words are capitalized in titles of periodicals. Include both publication dates in the parenthetical citation.
Parenthetical citation
(Stone & Kalish, 1973/1976)
13. Introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword
Bruccoli, M. J. (1992). Preface. In F. S. Fitzgerald, The great Gatsby. New York: 
Macmillan Publishing.
Parenthetical citation
 (Bruccoli, 1992)
14. Translated or illustrated work
Tolstoy, L. (1955). War and peace (L.Maude and A. Maude, Trans). Chicago:
Encyclopedia Britannica. (Original work published 1877)
Parenthetical citation
 (Tolstoy, 1877/1955)
Give the original date of publication in the citation as well as the publication date of the translation used.
15. Work in more than one volume
Kettle, A. (1968). An introduction to the English novel (Vols. 1-2). New York: Harper
& Row.
Parenthetical citation
 (Kettle, 1968, vol. 2)
If you want to indicate the particular volume, do so after the date.
16. Reprint of an older book
Darwin, C. (1936). The origin of species by means of natural selection. New York:
Modern Library. (Original work published 1859)
Parenthetical citation
 (Darwin, 1859/1936)
17. Book from a series
Labor, E. J. (1974). Jack London. New York: Twayne Publishers.
If the book is a part of a series, give the title of the book and omit the title of the series.
Parenthetical citation
 (Labor, 1974)
18. Title within a title
Gibaldi, J. (1980). Approaches to teaching Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. New York:
Modern Language Association.
Do not italicize titles within titles.
Parenthetical citation
 (Garibaldi, 1980)
19. Pamphlet or brochure
1997-98 Sentry student security plan [Brochure]. (1997). Stevens Point, WI: Sentry Life
Use the same form for a pamphlet as you do for a book, but indicate the form in brackets following the title. Give whatever information is available.
Parenthetical citation
 (1997-98, 1997)
20. Government publication or report
Department of Administration, Telecommunications Division. (1997). State of
Minnesota 1997-1998 telephone directory. St. Paul: State of Minnesota.
Parenthetical citation
 (Department of Administration, 1997)
U. S. Postal Service. (1995). Special bulk third-class eligibility (Publication 417). 
Washington, DC: Corporate Publishing and Information Management.
Parenthetical citation
 (U. S., 1995)
U. S. Department of the Environment. (1990). Radiation protection of the public and the
environment (Order 5400.5). Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.
Parenthetical citation
(U. S., 1990)
If you have more than one source with United States as the first item with different dates, the different date will indicate with source is being parenthetically, as in (U. S., 1990).
21. Unpublished dissertation
Haymond, J. (1982). Participation of the American Indian in higher education from the
College of the Children of the Infidels (1619) to the Tribally Controlled Community College Act (1969). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Washington State University, Pullman.
Parenthetical citation
 (Haymond, 1982)
22. Published and unpublished letters
Blake, W. (1979). Letter to William Haley. In Johnson, M. L., & Grant, J. E. (Eds.),
Blake’s poetry and designs (p. 449). New York: W. W. Norton. (Original letter written in 1800)
Parenthetical citation
 (Blake, 1800/1951)
Unpublished personal communications, such as personal letters and interviews, are not included in the reference list.
23. Maps, charts, graphs, illustrations
United States of America [Map]. (1992). Chicago: Rand McNally Corporation.
Treat the source as an unsigned book, but indicate the source’s form.
Parenthetical citation
 (United States of America, 1992)
24. Work with no date
Smithsonian National Museum of American History. (n.d.). The American presidency.
Washington: GPO.
Parenthetical citation
 (Smithsonian, n.d.)
Indicate that there is no date in the citation as well.
25. Dictionary
Webster’s ninth new collegiate dictionary (9th ed.). (1988). Springfield,
Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster.
Parenthetical citation
 (Webster’s, 1988)
26. Signed reference article
Hardon, J. A. (1993). Councils of the Church. In Collier’s (Vol. 7, pp. 394-395). 
New York: P. F. Collier.
Parenthetical citation
 (Hardon, 1993)
27. Unsigned reference article
Spirostomum. (1993). Academic American encyclopedia (Vol. 18, p. 190). 
Danbury, CT: Grolier.
Parenthetical citation
 (“Spirostomum,” 1993)
When the article or chapter title is used for the citation, put the title or a shortened form of the title in quotation marks.
28. Signed article from daily newspaper
Slovut, G. (1996, October 2). Laser-drug combo proving to be potent cancer
killer. Star Tribune [Minneapolis-St. Paul], p. A1.
If the newspaper’s name does not include the location, put the location in brackets, but do not underline. Capitalize key words in the names for periodicals.
Parenthetical citation
 (Slovut, 1996)
29. Unsigned article from daily newspaper or other periodical
Battle global warming, Clinton gambles on free-market forces. (1997, October
23). Chicago Tribune, p. A1.
Parenthetical citation
 (“Battle Global,” 1997)
Capitalize key words in the parenthetical citation as well as enclosing the title in quotation marks.
30. Editorial, letter to the editor, review
Nothing ever happens here [editorial]. (1996, August 28). Pelican Rapids [MN]
Press, p. 2.
Parenthetical citation
 (“Nothing Ever,” 1996)
31. Article from weekly magazine
Wingert, P., & Kantrowitz, B. (1997, October 27). Why Andy couldn’t read.
Newsweek, 130, 56-60, 62-64.
Always give the volume number after the title of the magazine and italicize it.
Parenthetical citation
 (Wingert & Kantrowitz, 1997)
32. Article in monthly magazine
Lamb, L., Doyle, N., & Smith, R. S. (1997, November). Women of influence.
Minnesota Monthly, 31, 58-65.
Parenthetical citation
 (Lamb, Doyle, & Smith, 1997)
33. Journal article with continuous pagination
Becerra, J. E., & Smith, J. C. (1988). Maternal smoking and low birthweight in the
reproductive history of women in Puerto Rico, 1982. American Journal of Public Health, 78, 268-272.
Parenthetical citation
 (Becerra & Smith, 1988)
34. Journal article with single-issue pagination
Friis, H. R. (1958). Highlights in the first hundred years of surveying and mapping and
geographical exploration of the United States by the federal government, 1775-1880. Surveying and Mapping: A Quarterly Journal, 18(2), 186-206.
Give the volume and number of the issue following the magazine’s title.
Parenthetical citation
 (Friis, 1958)
35. Abstract
Johnstone, J. W. C. (1982). Who controls the news. American Journal of
Sociology, 87, 1174-81. (From American: History and Life, 20.A, p. 2120, Abstract)
If the title of the source for the abstract is not in the title of the magazine, include the word at the end of the entry.
Parenthetical citation
 (Johnstone, 1982)
Fournier, M., deRidder, D., & Bensing, J. (1999). Optimism and adaptation to multiple
sclerosis: What does optimism mean? Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22.  Abstract retrieved October 23, 2002, from WebPALS database.
Parenthetical citation
 (Fournier, deRidder, & Bensing, abstract, 2002)
36. Unpublished data or survey
Stein, W. J. (1992). [American Indian Faculty Survey.] Unpublished survey.
Put the title of the survey in brackets and do not italicize it.
Parenthetical citation
 (Stein, 1992)
Rehder, D., Long, J., & Green, M.  (2002). [Survey of college freshmen on personal
labeling]. Unpublished raw data.
Use this form if you are referring to the data and not the actual survey.
Parenthetical citation
(Rehder, Long, & Green, 2002)
37. Interview
In the APA format, a personal interview, as well as letters, memos, email, electronic billboards, etc, is considered personal correspondence and is not cited in the Reference List. It is cited in the text only, as in
Rodney DeLong (personal interview, Sept. 30, 1997) says . . .
38. Lecture or speech
Reedy, P. (1996, October 3). Beautiful, beautiful Shane. Paper presented at
Grasslands and Heartlands: Remembering and Representing the Great Plains in
History and Literature, Western Literature Association Convention, Ramada Inn,
Lincoln, NE. 
Parenthetical citation
(Reedy, 1996)
39. Published Conference Proceedings
Hannus, M., Heikkonen, A. & Laitinen, J. (1996). Internet in construction
projects and research. In Z. Turk (Ed.). Construction on the information highway,
Bled, Slovenia, 10-12 June 1996 (pp. 265-272). Ljubljana, Slovenia: University
of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy.
Parenthetical citation
 (Hannus, Heikkonen, & Laitinen, 1996)
40. Film or videotape
Perlberg, W. (Producer), & King, H. (Director). (1992). The song of Bernadette
[Videocassette]. (Available from Fox Video, Los Angeles)
Parenthetical citation
 (Perlberg & King, 1992)
41. Recording
Lehrer, T. (1981). Revisited [Audiocassette]. New York: Dorset Audio. (Live concert
recording of the twelve songs from Songs by Tom Lehrer)
Parenthetical citation
 (Lehrer, 1981)
42. Live performance
A live performance is unrecoverable data and therefore is not cited in the reference list.  It would be referred to in the text only with emphasis on name and date of performance and other information relevant to the text.
43. Musical composition or work of art
Hopper, E. (1930). Early Sunday Morning [Artwork]. In Davidson, A. A., The story of
American painting (plate 105). New York: Harry N. Abrams. (Original in Whitney Museum of American Art, New York)
Parenthetical citation
 (Hopper, 1930)
44. Radio or television program
Miller, M. (Producer and director). (1977). Chapter 2 [Television series episode]. 
In M. Miller (Producer), Dickens of London. New York: Public Broadcasting Service.
Parenthetical citation
 (Miller, 1977)
Electronic Citation format
45. Material from library databases or Material from Electronic Journals with an electronic form the same as the print form
If the electronic work you are using gives publication data for a printed source, begin your citation with this information.
1. Name of the author (Last name and first initial–if name given).
2. Date (in parentheses).
3. Title of article. (If no author, date goes after title of article)
4. Insert [Electronic version] after the title of the article—if the article has the same form as the print form 
5. Name of periodical (italicized)
6. Volume number (italicized; do not give the volume number for newspaper entries)
7. Paging or indicator of length, as in number of paragraphs or number of pages, if a clear number is indicated. If the length is not clearly defined, omit any reference to length.
8. Date you retrieved the document and the URL for the library database.

Journal from Electric Library (or other library service), same form as print source as in most PDF or Acrobat files, page numbers given
Menon, S. (1997). The Piltdown perp [Electronic version]. Discovery,18, 26-28.
Parenthetical citation
(Menon, 1997)
Newspaper from ProQuest or other library service, no author, location specified, altered format
French official assures foreign tourists of safety. (2005, November 7). Xinhua [China]
News Agency, 1. Retrieved April 5, 2006, from http://proquest.umi.com
Parenthetical citation
(“French,” 2005)
Journal from SIRS (or other library service), with volume and issue number.
Lorenzini, P. (2005). A second look at nuclear power. Issues in Science and Technology,
21(3), 31-38. Retrieved April 5, 2006, from http://sks.sirs.com
Parenthetical citation
(Lorenzini, 2005)
Journal from SIRS (or other library service), with volume and issue number and number of pages rather than page numbers.
Gleeson, M. (2006). Can nutrition limit exercise-induced immunodepression? Nutrition
Review, 64, 119-131. Retrieved April 5, 2006, from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com 
Parenthetical citation
(Gleeson, 2006)
46.  Material with No Printed Source Specified.
Having no specific printed source means that the only form of this source is that on the Internet or electronic server.  Your entry in the works-cited list should consist of the following items:
1. Name of the author (if given)
2. Date (in parentheses)
3. Work within work (if any) (if no author, give work within work before date)
4. Larger work in which the material is found or title of the database (underlined) (if given)
5. Retrieved Month, day, year, from URL
Internet article with author
Glicken, M. D. (1992, November 10). A five-step plan to renew your creativity. 
            National Business Employment Weekly. Retrieved May 18, 1998, from


Parenthetical citation
(Glicken, 1992)
Internet article with no author
Vietnam war. (1999). Encarta. Retrieved May 6, 1999, from http://encarta.msn.com


Parenthetical citation
(“Vietnam War,” 1999)
Xanax often abuse for easy high. (2002, January 29). NBC nightly news.
New York: National Broadcasting Company. Retrieved January 31,

2002, from http://navigation.help.realnames.com/framer/1000/

default.asp? realname=NBC+Nightly+News&cc=US&lc=en%2


2Fwww%2Emsnbc%2Ecom% 2Fnews%2FNIGHTLYTB%5FFRONT


Parenthetical citation
(“Xanax,” 2002)
Government document
U. S. Department of Agriculture. (1999, January). Refrigeration and food safety.
Consumer education and information. Retrieved February 8, 2002, from
Parenthetical citation
(U. S., 1999)
U. S. Department of the Treasury. (2002). General explanations of the
            Administration’s year 2003 revenue proposals. Retrieved Sept. 10, 2002, from
Parenthetical citation
(U. S., 2002)
Minnesota Department of Agriculture. (2002). West Nile virus FAQs for horse owners.
            Minnesota Department of Agriculture. St. Paul, MN. Retrieved Sept. 10, 2002,
            from http://www.mda.state.mn.us/westnile.htm
Parenthetical citation
(Minnesota, 2002)
47. An Electronic Text
A great variety of texts, such as literary works and historical documents, are available through computer networks. If you plan to study an electronic text of a literary or historical work, remember that not all texts are equally reliable or authoritative. Be sure to use a text that states the title, editor, and date of the edition serving as its source. Although print sources exist for these documents, because electronic books can come from a variety of servers, always include the retrieval date and the URL to specify the exact source of this electronic edition.
Your citation of an electronic text should contain the following items:
1. Name of the author (if any)
2. Date (in parentheses)
3. Work within work (if any)  (if no author, give work within work before date)
4. Title of the text (italicized)
5. Publication information for the printed source
6. Retrieved Month, day, year, from URL

NetLibrary book
Matthews, O. P. (1997). Geography, law, and mineral development. In G. L. Thompson,
F. M. Shelley, & C. Wije (Eds.), Geography, environment, and American law (pp. 104-133) [Electronic version]. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado.
Book from other full text Internet database, PDF or Acrobat file


Darwin, C. (2000). The descent of man and selection in relation to sex (S. Asscher, Ed.).
Project Gutenberg. Retrieved February 8, 2007, from http://www.gutenberg.org/ dirs/etext00/dscmn10.txt (2nd ed., originally published 1874)
Parenthetical citation
(Darwin, 1874/2000)
Nixon, R. (1996). Letter of resignation. National Archives and Records Administration.  
Retrieved April 4, 2006, http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals/ nixon.html (Originally written August 9, 1974)
Parenthetical citation
(Nixon, 1974/1996)
Brochure with electronic and print form
National Institute of Mental Health. (2001, January 1). Going to extremes: Bipolar
disorder (No. 01-4595) [Brochure] [Electronic Version]. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Health.
Parenthetical citation
(National Institute of Mental Health, 2001)
48. CD-ROM
1. Name of the author.
2. Date.
3. Work within work (if any) (if no author, give work within work before date)
4. Title of the book or journal (italicized).
5. For periodicals, volume number and pages, etc., for the article.
6. Publication medium. (CD-ROM or magnetic tape)
7. Name of the CD-ROM database from which the material came or the name of the publishing company
Kraft, J. M., Blum, T. C., & Martin, J. K. (1993). Drinking patterns and the
gender mix of occupations: Evidence from a national survey of American
workers [CD-ROM]. Journal of Substance Abuse, 5, 157-174. Article from
UMI-ProQuest file: PsychINFO Item:  81-3654.
Parenthetical citation
(Kraft, Blum, & Martin, 1993)
African American history: Abolitionist movement. (2000). Encarta
encyclopedia [CD-ROM]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation.
Parenthetical citation
(“African American,” 2000)
Van Beethoven, L. (1806). Violin concerto in D major op. 61 [Recorded by A.
            Pervomansky, violin, and Philharmonia Slavonica]. On Unforgettable classical
            melodies [CD-ROM]. Location: Madacy Entertainment, St. Laurent, Quebec.
The last date refers to when the orchestra recorded the work.
Parenthetical citation
(Van Beethoven, 1806/1997)
49.  When in doubt . . .??
If you are unsure which model to follow, try answering these questions in the following order. However, remember that the date is never given first. Always give some title before the date.
1.  Who wrote the material?
2.  When was it written?
3.  What is the title of the material?
4.  In what larger work does the material appear?
5.  Where was the material published?
6.  When was the material accessed?
7.  What is the URL?