Persuasive Writing: Signal Words

Persuasive
Writing:  Signal Words
TRANSITIONAL PHRASES
INTRODUCTORY
PHRASES
In
my opinion
I
believe
It
is my belief that
There
is no doubt that
From
my point of view
It
seems to me that
I
question whether
I
(dis) agree with
I
maintain that
CONCLUDING
PHRASES
For
the reasons above
As
you can see
As
I have noted
In
other words
On
the whole
In
short
To
be sure
Without
a doubt
Obviously
Unquestionably
In
brief
Undoubtedly
In
any case
Summarizing
In
any event
SUPPORTING
OPINIONS
First           Furthermore
Second      In addition
Third          Also
Finally        Last
Equally
important
In
the first place
Likewise
Besides          Further
Next               Again
Moreover       Similarly
INTRODUCING
DETAILS
For
example
In
fact
For
instance
As
evidence
In
support of this
CAUSE
AND EFFECT
Since
Because
of
Due
to
For
this reason
Therefore
If…then
Caused
by
This
results in
Consequently
Accordingly
As
a result of
Leads
to
In
effect
Brought
about
Made
possible
As
might be expected
Give
rise to
Was
responsible for
COMPARE
AND CONTRAST
Similarly
Compared
to
In
like manner
On
the other hand
Although
Even
though
Likewise
In
the same way
Contrasting
On
the contrary
As
opposed to
Rather
than
Nevertheless
As
well as
Have
in common
All
are
The
same as
Conversely
Whether
of not
In
spite of
COUNTERING
I
realize you
I
understand you
Even
though you
Although
you
Some
people
It
may be that you
Your
idea to ____ deserves some merit
Believe
Feel
Maintain
Want
Favour
Support
Argue
State
But
Yet
However
I
doubt
I
question
Let
me explain
On
the other hand
Nevertheless



TRANSITIONS
When you want to start an example or
illustration:
She loves fine clothes. For
example,
her prom dress cost nearly two hundred dollars.
Jim sometimes becomes bored
easily. For instance, I remember something that happened last summer.
When you want to contrast one thing with
another:
Mary is one of my best friends.  However, she sometimes makes me angry
by being late.
Jack is a good swimmer. Even
so
, he has never won a trophy,
I saw her once when I felt
awful.  Nevertheless, we had a
wonderful time.
When you want to add another idea:
Tom is crazy about his motorcycle. Furthermore,
he does all the maintenance on it himself.
Mr. Johnston is an excellent
teacher. Moreover, he is very popular with his students.
Everybody likes Lou. In
addition
, he seems to like everyone he meets.
When you want to show that one thing
causes another:
Sam isn’t very organized. Consequently,
he sometimes doesn’t seem to know what he is doing.
One time he forgot his wife’s
birthday. As a result, she was very angry.
Al jogs three miles a day. Therefore,
he is in good shape. .
When you want to summarize or
generalize:
That really bothered me. But on
the whole
, he is a pretty good guy.
He is sensitive, warm, and
considerate. In short, I love him.

Tips on Writing a Persuasive Essay

Tips on Writing a Persuasive Essay

Writing a persuasive essay is like being a lawyer arguing a case before a jury. The writer takes a stand on an issue—either “for” or “against”—and builds the strongest possible argument to win over the reader.
In a persuasive essay, it’s the writer’s job to convince the reader to accept a particular point of view or take a specific action. Persuasive essays require good research, awareness of the reader’s biases, and a solid understanding of both sides of the issue. A good persuasive essay demonstrates not only why the writer’s opinion is correct, but also why the opposing view is incorrect.
Persuasive writing is a fixture of modern life—found in advertising, newspaper editorials, blogs, and political speeches. Often persuasive writing assignments and test prompts concern contemporary issues, for example: “The school board is debating on whether or not to ban cell phone use in school. Write an essay convincing the board to adopt your position.” As shown in this persuasive writing prompt, the main purpose is not to inform, but to “persuade” or “convince” an audience (the school board) to think or act a certain way.
The Five-Step Writing Process for Persuasive Essays
At Time4Writing, we believe the five-step writing process is the best approach to learning how to write a persuasive essay. Here are persuasive essay tips for each phase of the writing process.
1. Prewriting for the Persuasive Essay
The prewriting phase of writing a persuasive essay is extremely important. During this phase, students should plan every aspect of the essay:
  • Choose a position. Students should think about the issue and pick the side they wish to advocate.
  • Understand the audience. In order to write an effective persuasive essay, the writer must understand the reader’s perspective. Is the reader undecided or inclined to favor one side or the other?
  • Do the research. A persuasive essay depends upon solid, convincing evidence. Don’t rely on a single source. Go to the library and enlist the help of the librarian. Speak with community experts and teachers. Read and take notes. There is no substitute for knowledge of both sides of the issue.
  • Identify the most convincing evidence, as well as the key points for the opposing view.
Organizing the Persuasive Essay: Outline and Structure
Next, create an outline. Organize the evidence to build the strongest possible argument. If the teacher has specified an essay structure, incorporate it into the outline. Typically, the persuasive essay comprises five or six paragraphs:

Persuasive Essay Outline

Introductory Paragraph

  • Grab the reader’s attention by using a “hook.”
  • Give an overview of the argument.
  • Close with a thesis statement that reveals the position to be argued.

Body Paragraphs

  • Each body paragraph should focus on one piece of evidence.
  • Within each paragraph, provide sufficient supporting detail.

Opposing View Paragraph

  • Describe and then refute the key points of the opposing view.

Concluding Paragraph

  • Restate and reinforce the thesis and supporting evidence.

2. Drafting the Persuasive Essay
When writing the initial draft of a persuasive essay, consider the following suggestions:
  • The introductory paragraph should have a strong “hook” that grabs the reader’s attention. Open with an unusual fact or statistic, a question or quotation, or an emphatic statement. For example: “Driving while talking on a cell phone, even hands-free, is the equivalent of driving drunk.”
  • The thesis statement should leave no doubts about the writer’s position.
  • Each body paragraph should cover a separate point, and the sentences of each paragraph should offer strong evidence in the form of facts, statistics, quotes from experts, and real-life examples.
  • Consider various ways to make the argument, including using an analogy, drawing comparisons, or illustrating with hypothetical situation (e.g., what if, suppose that…).
  • Don’t assume the audience has in-depth knowledge of the issue. Define terms and give background information.
  • The concluding paragraph should summarize the most important evidence and encourage the reader to adopt the position or take action. The closing sentence can be a dramatic plea, a prediction that implies urgent action is needed, a question that provokes readers to think seriously about the issue, or a recommendation that gives readers specific ideas on what they can do.
  • 3. Revising the Persuasive Essay
    In the revision phase, students review, modify, and reorganize their work with the goal of making it the best it can be. Keep these considerations in mind:
    • Does the essay present a firm position on the issue, supported by relevant facts, statistics, quotes, and examples?
    • Does the essay open with an effective “hook” that intrigues readers and keeps them reading?
    • Does each paragraph offer compelling evidence focused on a single supporting point?
    • Is the opposing point of view presented and convincingly refuted?
    • Is the sentence structure varied? Is the word choice precise? Do the transitions between sentences and paragraphs help the reader’s understanding?
    • Does the concluding paragraph convey the value of the writer’s position and urge the reader to think and act?
    If the essay is still missing the mark, take another look the thesis. Does it present the strongest argument? Test it by writing a thesis statement for the opposing viewpoint. In comparison, does the original thesis need strengthening? Once the thesis presents a well-built argument with a clear adversarial viewpoint, the rest of the essay should fall into place more easily.
    4. Editing the Persuasive Essay
    Next, proofread and correct errors in grammar and mechanics, and edit to improve style and clarity. Having a friend read the essay helps writers edit with a fresh perspective.
    5. Publishing the Persuasive Essay
    Sharing a persuasive essay with the rest of the class can be both exciting and intimidating. Learn from the experience and use the feedback to make the next essay even better.

    — 13 — Persuasion – Act – Solve

    PERSUASIVE WRITING – 3 –                          Act – Solve                

    TCW- C19 (4e:C18)  Persuading Readers to Act
    TCW- C20  (4e:C19) Proposing a Solution

    Persuasion Intro

    Overview Video – Persuasion and Rhetoric

    http://community.copypress.com/how-to-write-persuasively/

    OVERVIEW – GOALS

    In persuasive writing advocating a position, action, and/or solution,  A writer takes a position FOR or AGAINST an issue and writes to convince the reader to believe or do something.

    Persuasive writing is often used in advertisements to get the reader to buy a product. It is also used in essays and other types of writing to get the reader to accept a point of view.

    In order to convince the reader to act you need more than opinion; you need facts or examples to back your opinion. So, be sure to do the research!

    Persuasive writing follows a particular format. It has an introduction, a body where the argument is developed, and a conclusion.

    After writing an essay, like any other piece of writing, you should read, revise, conference and revise, before publishing the final product. Before starting, check the rubric to see how you will be evaluated, as well as, all the ingredients required to write the essay.


    OUTLINE

    Introduction:

    The introduction has a “hook or grabber” to catch the reader’s attention. Some “grabbers” include:

    1. Opening with an unusual detail: (Manitoba, because of its cold climate, is not thought of as a great place to be a reptile. Actually, it has the largest seasonal congregation of garter snakes in the world!)
    2. Opening with a strong statement: (Cigarettes are the number one cause of lighter sales in Canada!)
    3. Opening with a Quotation: (Elbert Hubbard once said , “Truth is stronger than fiction.”)
    4. Opening with an Anecdote: An anecdote can provide an amusing and attention-getting opening if it is short and to the point.
    5. Opening with a Statistic or Fact: Sometimes a statistic or fact will add emphasis or interest to your topic. It may be wise to include the item’s authoritative source.
    6. Opening with a Question. (Have you ever considered how many books we’d read if it were not for television?)
    7. Opening with an Exaggeration or Outrageous Statement. (The whole world watched as the comet flew overhead.)

    The introduction should also include a thesis or focus statement.

    There are three objectives of a thesis statement:

    1 It tells the reader the specific topic of your essay.
    2 It imposes manageable limits on that topic.
    3 It suggests the organization of your paper.

    Through the thesis, you should say to the reader:”I’ve thought about this topic, I know what I believe about it, and I know how to organize it.”

    Example Introduction:

    GRABBER-OPENING WITH A STRONG STATEMENT

    Of all the problems facing the environment today, the one that bothers me the most is global warming. Some scientists say that the earth is getting warmer because of the greenhouse effect. [THESIS STATEMENT] In this paper I will describe the greenhouse effect and whether the earth’s atmosphere is actually getting warmer.

    The Body:  The writer then provides evidence to support the opinion offered in the thesis statement in the introduction. The body should consist of at least three paragraphs. Each paragraph is based on a solid reason to back your thesis statement. Since almost all issues have sound arguments on both sides of the question, a good persuasive writer tries to anticipate opposing viewpoints and provide counter-arguments along with the main points in the essay. One of the three paragraphs should be used to discuss opposing viewpoints and your counter-argument. Elaboration: Use statistics or research, real-life experiences, or examples.

    • Generating hypothetical instance:

        Used particularly when creating an argument and you want the reader to see a different point of view. Use cues for the reader. (eg.: suppose that, what if…)

    • Clarifying a position: Think about what needs to be explained and what can be assumed.
    • Thinking through a process: Think through the procedure from start to finish. Most often the sentence will begin with a verb. Provide background information a reader may need. Illustrate whenever appropriate. Define special terms used. Use cues for the reader. (e.g..: first, second, next, then etc.)
    • Drawing comparisons: Choose something similar to what is being explained. Use one of two patterns: Opposing or Alternating. End with a conclusion. Use cues for the reader.
    • Making an analysis: You can analyze a problem by looking at the parts and therefore help the reader to understand.
    • Drawing an analogy: Use an analogy to explain or elaborate and idea by identifying significant likenesses between two objects or ideas when otherwise they are quite different. This is helpful when the comparison is made to something that is familiar to the reader.
    • Generating hypothetical instance: Used particularly when creating an argument and you want the reader to see a different point of view. Use cues for the reader. (e.g..: suppose that, what if…)

    The Conclusion: A piece of persuasive writing usually ends by summarizing the most important details of the argument and stating once again what the reader is to believe or do.

    1 Restate your thesis or focus statement.
    2 Summarize the main points: The conclusion enables your reader to recall the main points of your position. In order to do this you can paraphrase the main points of your argument.
    3 Write a personal comment or call for action. You can do this:
    ◦ With a Prediction: This can be used with a narrative or a cause and effect discussion.

    The conclusion may suggest or predict what the results may or may not be in the situation discussed or in similar situations.
    ◦ With a Question: Closing with a question lets your readers make their own predictions, draw their own conclusions.
    ◦ With Recommendations: A recommendations closing is one that stresses the actions or remedies that should be taken.
    ◦ With a Quotation: Since a quotation may summarize, predict, question, or call for action, you may use a quotation within a conclusion for nearly any kind of paper.

    As a general guideline, when writing a persuasive essay:
    • Have a firm opinion that you want your reader to accept.
    • Begin with a grabber or hook to get the reader’s attention.
    • Offer evidence to support your opinion.
    • Conclude with a restatement of what you want the reader to do or believe.
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    Persuasive Essay Structure and Process Summary-Review

    I. Introduction:
    1 Get the readers attention by using a “hook.”
    2 Give some background information if necessary.
    3 Thesis or focus statement.
    II. First argument or reason to support your position:
    1 Topic sentence explaining your point.
    2 Elaboration to back your point.
    III. Second argument or reason to support your position:
    1 Topic sentence explaining your point.
    2 Elaboration to back your point.
    IV. Third argument or reason to support your position:
    1 Topic sentence explaining your point.
    2 Elaboration to back your point.
    V. Opposing Viewpoint: (This is optional, however highly recommended, so that the reader will know you have considered another point of view and have a rebuttal to it.)
    1 Opposing point to your argument.
    2 Your rebuttal to the opposing point.
    3 Elaboration to back your rebuttal.
    VI. Conclusion:
    1 Summary of main points or reasons
    2 Restate thesis statement.
    3 Personal comment or a call to action.
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    Transition Signals:
    Transitions are words and phrases that connect ideas and show how they are related.

    Conferencing with a Peer

    Ask someone to read your rough draft to see if they understand and can follow your argument. You may want to put your draft up on the Internet for other students to respond also. Ask them to consider the following questions. (copy them and paste them at the end of your essay.) Their answers should show you that your argument makes sense. back to top
What is the thesis statement?
How is the thesis explained? What are the main points of the argument? (3)
    1 1.
    2 2.
    3 3.
    How did the author back up each point?
    1 1.
    2 2.
    3 3.
    What are the opposing point(s)?

    What is the writer’s solution?

    Final Copy
    Make the final content revisions as suggested by your peers and teacher. Check the mechanics and make those changes. Now you are ready to publish! Will it be published on the Internet, in a school magazine or newsletter, in a class newspaper or are you printing it out for the teacher to read? If you are publishing on the Internet be sure to include your email address so that you can get some responses.

    Writing Links – Persuasion